Turkey is located in Eastern Europe and southerwestern Asia, and is even sometimes considered part of the Middle East. The Mediterranean Sea lies to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Black Sea to the north. It shares land borders on the west with Bulgaria and Greece, Syria, Iraq and Iran to the southeast, and Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia to the northeast.
Present day Turkey originated from the Ottoman Empire, and the country as it's now known was formed in 1923. It's capital city is Ankara, and its largest city is Istanbul, which is probably one of the most visited in the country, and is well known for its beautiful mosques and palaces. Istanbul also lies on both sides the Bosphorus strait, which separates the country between the official boundaries of Europe and Asia, and provides a water passage between the Aegean and Black Seas.
If you are flying to Turkey, there is an international airport in Istanbul, and a major airport also in Ankara.